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Local Organizing Committee:

Petr Jizba (Chair)
Czech Technical University in Prague


International Organizing Committee:

Gonzalo Ares de Parga
Instituto Politécnico Nacional

Tepper L. Gill
Howard University, USA

Lawrence P. Horwitz
Bar Ilan University, Israel
Tel-Aviv University, Israel

Martin C. Land
Hadassah College, Jerusalem

James O'Brien
Springfield College, USA





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The 13th Biennial Conference on Classical and Quantum Relativistic Dynamics of Particles and Fields

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6 - 9 June 2022  ♦  Czech Technical University in Prague



Testing a dark matter candidate emerging from the scalar ether theory
Mayeul Arminjon

The scalar ether theory is a relativistic theory of gravity with a preferred frame, based on a scalar field only. To formulate a consistent modification of the Maxwell equations in a gravitational field for that theory, it turns out to be necessary to introduce an additional energy tensor: the energy interaction tensor. This represents an exotic form of energy, $E_\mathrm{inter}$, that is not confined inside usual matter. It is hence a potential candidate for dark matter. This depends only on a scalar field, $p$, that obeys an advection equation which may be put in the form \begin{equation}\label{dp/dt} \frac{D p}{D T} \equiv \frac{\partial p}{\partial T} + {\bf u.}\nabla p = S. \end{equation} Here the source $S$ and the velocity-like field ${\bf u}$ are given fields. Both depend on the Maxwell field and its first derivatives; $S$ depends also on the time derivative $\partial _T U$ (in the preferred frame) of the Newtonian potential $U$. In order to check if $E_\mathrm{inter}$ may form representative galactic ``halos", a model providing the interstellar radiation field (ISRF) in a galaxy as an exact Maxwell field is hence needed. We built such a model; its main assumption is axial symmetry. Having such a model, $S$ and ${\bf u}$ are easily computed. Hence the scalar field $p$ and the field of the energy $E_\mathrm{inter}$, are in principle determined. However, $S$ and ${\bf u}$ depend on time with a high frequency, as does the ISRF. In order to integrate the advection equation at the scale of a galaxy, it is therefore necessary to proceed to a time average. We apply a time-homogenization technique and develop appropriate tools to compute the time-averaged fields $\bar{S}$ and $\bar{{\bf u}}$. We thus are approaching the stage at which relevant distributions of $p$ and $E_\mathrm{inter}$ will be computable.

Time dispersion in quantum electrodynamics
John Ashmead

Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is often formulated in a way that appears fully relativistic. However since QED treats the three space dimensions as observables but time as a classical parameter, it is at best only partially relativistic. For instance, in the path integral formulation, the sum over paths includes paths that vary in space but not paths that vary in time. We here extend QED to include time on the same basis as space. This implies dispersion in time, entanglement in time, full equivalence of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (HUP) in time to the HUP in space, and so on. We make no further assumptions. The results are fully defined by covariance therefore falsifiable in principle. In the long time limit we show we recover standard QED. Further, entanglement in time has the welcome side effect of regulating the loop integrals, thereby eliminating the ultraviolet divergences. We expect to see the effects of dispersion in time at scales of attoseconds and less. With recent developments in attosecond physics and in quantum computing, these effects should now be visible. The most dramatic are those involving the HUP in time. The results are therefore falsifiable in practice. Since the promotion of time to an operator is done by a straightforward application of agreed and tested principles of quantum mechanics and relativity, falsification will have implications for those principles. Confirmation will have implications for attosecond physics, quantum computing and communications, and quantum gravity.

Time measurement with accelerating light-clocks
Uri Ben-Ya'acov

The clock hypothesis in relativity states that the rate of time as measured by any clock is determined by its Minkowskian proper-time, regardless of the nature of its motion; in particular independent of its acceleration, depending only on its instantaneous velocity. However, a unique proper-time may be assigned to an accelerating clock, as to any physical system, only in the limit of being point-like. But clocks, by their very nature, must be spatially extended systems, to allow an internal periodical mechanism. Therefore the question, How does the internal structure of the clock affect the clock hypothesis? The simplest model to examine the clock hypothesis is the so-called `light clock', consisting of two mirrors with a light signal reflected between them. So far, such examinations were carried mainly in the limits of point-like clocks and/or constant acceleration. Here the clock hypothesis is theoretically examined for spatially extended linearly accelerated light-clocks, parallel and vertical relative to the direction of motion, with arbitrarily varying accelerations. Using the rapidity of the clock as its evolution parameter, a Lorentz covariant analysis is neatly performed. Taking into account the spatial extension of the clock, the difference between externally measured Minkowskian proper-times and the time-scale determined by the internal periodical mechanism of the clock is computed. Although the relative difference is practically very minute — of the order of $aL/c^2$ for characteristic acceleration $a$ and spatial dimension $L$ of the clock -- theoretically it cannot be ignored.

Quantum noise of gravitons and stochastic force on geodesic separation
Hing Tong Cho

In this work we consider the effects of gravitons and their fluctuations on the dynamics of two masses using the Feynman-Vernon influence functional approach applied to stochastic gravity earlier by Calzetta, Hu and Verdaguer and most recently to this problem by Parikh, Wilczek and Zahariade. The Hadamard function of the gravitons yields the noise kernel acting as a stochastic tensorial force in a Langevin equation governing the motion of the separation of the masses. The fluctuations of the separation due to the graviton noise are then solved for various quantum states including the Minkowski vacuum, thermal, coherent and squeezed states. We also comment on the possibility of detection of these fluctuations using, for example, interferometers. The previous considerations of Parikh et al. are only for some selected modes of the graviton, while in this work we have included all graviton modes and polarizations.

The vortex coupled to gravity in AdS$_3$
Ariel Edery

We couple the vortex to Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant $\Lambda$ (i.e. AdS$_3$ background). The vortex is a topological object characterized by its winding number $n$. The local $U(1)$ gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken when the scalar field acquires a non-zero vacuum expectation value (VEV). We find numerically non-singular vortex solutions under gravity described by three parameters: the VEV $v$, the winding number $n$ and the cosmological constant Λ. We derive a formula for the (ADM) mass of the vortex which can be expressed as a subtraction of two asymptotic metrics or as an integral over matter fields only. The latter shows that the mass is roughly proportional to $n^2\,v^2$. We also find that the mass increases as the cosmological constant becomes more negative and this coincides with the vortex becoming more compressed. There is a well-known logarithmic divergence in the energy of the vortex if gauge fields are omitted. Gravity sheds new light on this issue. Without gauge fields, the logarithmic divergence appears asymptotically as a logarithmic potential $G\,m\,ln(r)$ in the metric where $m$ is proportional to $n^2\,v^2$. This potential is nothing but the Newtonian gravitational potential in $2+1$ dimensions with mass $m$. So an interesting spin-off from this work is that when General Relativity in $2+1$ dimensions is supplemented with a complex scalar field that acquires a non-zero VEV $v$ it can reproduce asymptotically the Newtonian gravitational potential in $2+1$ dimensions.

The Time arrow calculus
Alexander Gersten and Amnon Moalem

Most equations of physics are time reversed. By posing initial or boundary conditions the time direction can be fixed. However causality requires time to develop in the forward direction. Here a mathematical formalism is developed, which permits time to go only in one direction, independently of initial or boundary conditions.

Feynman operator calculus, Dyson’s conjectures and the dual Dirac theory
Tepper L. Gill

In this talk, I briefly discuss the Feynman operator calculus, its use in proving Dyson’s last two conjectures and the need for an order parameter. I will then identify three distinct ways the proper time may be defined, based on three ways gamma can appear in the special theory. Using one of them I show that a unique global clock can be defined, providing an order parameter for the universe, and the Feynman calculus. I then discuss the dual theory of relativistic quantum mechanics that, de- pending on the Hamiltonian, leads to three dual relativistic wave equations. The dual Dirac equation provides a new formula for the anomalous magnetic moment of a charged particle, allowing us to obtain the exact value for the elec- tron g-factor and phenomenological values for the muon and proton g-factors.

Pseudo-Riemann's quartics in Finsler's geometry
Y. Itin

An extension of Riemann's geometry into a direction-dependent geometric structure is usually described by Finsler's geometry. Historically, this construction was motivated by the well-known Riemann's quartic length element example. Quite surprisingly, the same quartic expression emerges in solid-state electrodynamics as a basic dispersion relation---covariant Fresnel equation. Consequently, Riemann's quartic length expression can be interpreted as a mathematical model of a well-established physics phenomena. In this paper, we present various examples of Riemann's quartic that demonstrate that Finsler's geometry is too restrictive for many applications even in the case of a positive definite Euclidean signature space. In the case of the spaces endowed with an indefinite (Minkowski) signature, there are much more singular hypersurfaces where the strong axioms of Finsler's geometry are broken down. We propose a weaker definition of Finsler's structure that is required to be satisfied only on open subsets of the tangent bundle of a manifold. We exhibit the characteristic singular hypersurfaces related to Riemann's quartic and briefly discuss their possible physical interpretation.

Decoherence limit of quantum systems obeying generalized uncertainty principle: new paradigm for Tsallis thermostatistics
P. Jizba, G. Lambiase, G. Luciano and L. Petruziello

The generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) is a phenomenological model whose purpose is to account for a minimal length scale (e.g., Planck scale or characteristic inverse-mass scale in effective quantum description) in quantum systems. In my talk I will discuss possible observational effects of GUP systems in their decoherence domain. I first derive coherent states associated to GUP and unveil that in the momentum representation they coincide with Tsallis' probability amplitudes, whose non-extensivity parameter q monotonically increases with the GUP deformation parameter β. Secondly, for β$<$0 (i.e., $q<1$), I show that, due to Bekner-Babenko inequality, the GUP is fully equivalent to information-theoretic uncertainty relations based on Tsallis-entropy-power. Finally, I invoke the Maximal Entropy principle known from estimation theory to reveal connection between the quasi-classical (decoherence) limit of GUP-related quantum theory and non-extensive thermostatistics of Tsallis. This might provide an exciting paradigm in a range of fields from quantum theory to analog gravity. For instance, in some quantum gravity theories, such as conformal gravity, aforementioned quasi-classical regime has relevant observational consequences. I will discuss some of the implications.

High accuracy synchrotron radiation interferometry with relativistic electrons
Pascal Klag, Patrick Achenbach, Philipp Eckert, Toshiyuki Gogami, Philipp Herrmann, Masashi Kaneta, Sho Nagao, Satoshi Nakamura, Josef Pochodzalla, and Yuichi Toyama

The Mainz Microtron is an electron accelerator, which delivers electron energies up to 1.6 GeV, with a small spread of the energy σ beam $<$ 13keV. Besides a small energy spread, the high quality of the beam allows producing high coherent synchrotron radiation. The light from two spatially separated and movable light sources (undulators), can be superimposed to render an interference pattern. The ideal applications are high accuracy absolute energy measurements of the relativistic electrons. Experiments at this beam line have yet been carried out at 180 MeV and 195 MeV. The radiation lies in the optical range where also Fresnel Diffraction patterns occur, which features allow very precise alignment control of less than 5 µrad. Supported by DFG (PO 256/7-1) Supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 programme, No 824093.

Group contraction in physics: history and outlook
Jaroslav Knap

Our understanding of underlying symmetries of nature has evolved as our observational and theoretical tools improved. One possible mathematical tool we can use to look at this issue is the method of group contraction. This provides a way to link the successive symmetry groups through the limit of some parameter. In this talk we will review the history of assumed symmetries of space and time, along with speculation on possible symmetries in the early universe. Afterwards, we will recap main features and methods of group contraction and use it to look at the relations of these groups through this lens and on the possible meaning of the contraction parameters.

The proton and Occam's razor
Giorgio Vassallo (University of Palermo), Andras Kovacs (BroadBit Energy Technologies)

Up to now, most scientists modeled the electron as a point particle, which violates Maxwell’s equation (renormalization), makes the concept of spin incomprehensible (a point can’t rotate), and is in contradiction with the commercially used Electron Spin Resonance technology. In recent works [1,2], we introduced an electromagnetic model of the electron, which is in accordance with the Maxwell and Proca equations. With these results, one may understand that the electron is characterized by a light-speed internal motion (Zitterbewegung). More precisely, the electron can be described as a current loop generated by a massless elementary charge that, moving at light-speed, acquires a vector potential A, a mechanical momentum eA and a magnetic flux h/e. Besides the electron, the proton is the only other known particle that is stable in a free particle state. In the first part of the presentation we discuss the extension of our electromagnetic model to the proton. As discussed in [2], the proton cannot be modeled as a simply a scaled down electron, otherwise its magnetic moment would be equal to a nuclear magneton. It is experimentally known that the proton has an anapole magnetic moment (we review some measurements), which leads to the toroidal proton structure shown in figure 1. The Zitterbewegung radius is represented by the blue arrow, and the overall torus size gives the proton diameter. The inverse of the Zitterbewegung radius is equal to the proton mass in natural units. The second part of the presentation derives the physical proton parameters. As in the electron model, the particle stability condition is given by the h/e magnetic flux value, where h is the Planck constant, and e is the elementary charge. This condition now applies to both the toroidal and poloidal loops. Our model has just one free parameter: the toroid aspect ratio. By setting this value to √39/5 we obtain a precise match both for the magnetic moment and gyromagnetic ratio parameters, and obtain 0.8 fm for the “proton size” value. We note that the magnetic moment and gyromagnetic ratio values have been measured to high precision, and that the model’s magnetic moment is only 0.000024% smaller than the CODATA value. The third part of the presentation discusses proton charge radius measurements. High-energy electron-proton scattering measurements indicate that the proton’s internal charge distribution peaks near 0.5 fm, which matches our model. Scattering based charge radius measurements range from 0.8 fm to 0.89 fm, but the methodology of calculating the charge radius from scattering data varies between experiments. Thus one cannot select the more accurate one. Lamb-shift analysis based charge radius measurements work with fairly uniform calculation method, and recently converge to the 0.84 fm proton radius value. Our Lamb shift analysis identifies a 0.04 fm proton position blurring effect which has been neglected in these calculations. Adjusting for this effect brings the experimental proton radius value to 0.8 fm, which again accurately matches our proton model.

The BGS-conjecture and measurement
Alexey Kryukov, University of Wisconsin

The BGS conjecture states that the Hamiltonian of a microscopic analogue of a classical chaotic system can be modeled by a random matrix from a Gaussian ensemble. In the talk, this conjecture is considered in the context of a recently discovered geometric relationship between classical and quantum mechanics. Based on BGS, we conjecture that the Hamiltonian of a system whose classical counterpart performs a random walk can be modeled by a family of independent random matrices from the Gaussian unitary ensemble. By accepting this conjecture, we find a relationship between the process of observation in classical and quantum physics and describe the boundary between the micro and macro worlds.

A vielbein approach to the 4+1 formalism in general relativity
Martin Land

The 4+1 formalism in general relativity expresses the Einstein equations as a manifestly covariant initial value problem, resulting in a pair of first order evolution equations for the metric $\gamma_{\mu\nu} $ and intrinsic curvature $K_{\mu\nu} $ of spacetime geometry ($\mu,\nu = 0,1,2,3 $). This approach extends the Stueckelberg-Horwitz-Piron (SHP) framework, a covariant approach to canonical particle mechanics and field theory employing a Lorentz scalar Hamiltonian $K$ and an external chronological parameter $\tau$. The SHP Hamiltonian generates $\tau$-evolution of spacetime events $x^\mu\left( \tau \right) $ or $\psi \left(x, \tau \right)$ in an a priori unconstrained phase space; standard relativistic dynamics can be recovered a posteriori by imposing symmetries that express the usual mass shell constraint for individual particles and fields as conservation laws. As a guide to posing field equations for the evolving metric, we generalize the structure of SHP electrodynamics, with particular attention to O(3,1) covariance. Thus, the 4+1 method first defines a 5D pseudo-spacetime as a direct product of spacetime geometry and chronological evolution, poses 5D field equations whose symmetry must be broken to 4D, and then implements the implied 4+1 foliation to obtain evolution equations. Here we sharpen and clarify the interpretation of this decomposition by introducing a fixed orthonormal quintrad frame and a 5D vielbein field that by construction respects the preferred 4+1 foliation. In important cases, this procedure enables the evolution equation for the metric to be replaced by an evolution equation for the vielbein field itself, simplifying calculation of the spin connection and curvature.

Relativistic particle wavepackets in quantum electromagnetic fields
Shih-Yuin Lin

We developed a linearized effective theory with Gaussian wavepackets of a charged relativistic particle coupled to quantum electromagnetic fields at a scale well below the Schwinger limit. Using this effective theory, we address the issues of decoherence of electron beams, the Unruh effect on electrons, and quantum corrections to the radiation emitted by single charged wavepackets.

Electromagnetic properties of the quantum vacuum calculated from its structure
Bruce Mainland

Maxwell’s equations are valid for any value of the permittivity $\epsilon_0$ of the vacuum; therefore, something in addition to Maxwell’s equations must determine $\epsilon_0$. A basic postulate of physics is that the structure of a system determines the properties of the system. Since $\epsilon_0$ is an electromagnetic property of the vacuum, it should be possible to calculate $\epsilon_0$ using Maxwell’s equations to describe the interaction of photons with the quantum vacuum. Vacuum fluc- tuations appear as particle –antiparticle pairs so that quantum numbers such as charge, baryon number, and lepton number are conserved. To minimize the violation of conservation of energy and conserve angular momentum, the pair appears in the most tightly bound state that has zero center-of-mass momentum and zero angular momentum. The permittivity of the vacuum is calculated somewhat similarly to the way that the permittivity of a dielectric is calculated yielding $\epsilon_0 \approx \frac{6\mu_0}{\pi} \Big( \frac{8e^2}{\hbar} \Big)^2 = 9.10 × 10^{−12}~ C/(Vm)$, which is 2.8% larger than the experimental value. Formulas for the speed of light in the vacuum and the fine-structure constant follow immediately from the formula for $\epsilon_0$.

New way of second quantization of fermion and boson fields
Norma Susana Mankoč Borštnik

In a long series of papers, I have been developing, together with collaborators, the model named the spin-charge-family theory, with fermions the internal space of which is described with the odd products of the Clifford algebra objects in d=13+1. This model is offering explanation for all the assumptions of the standard model, with the appearance of families included, as well as for other observed phenomena, as there are the dark matter and the matter/antimatter asymmetry in the universe, making several predictions.

In this talk I shortly review the achievements of the spin-charge-family so far. In the main part I discuss properties of the second quantized not only fermion fields but also boson fields, if the second quantization of both kinds of fields origin in the description of the internal space of fields with the ''basis vectors'' which are the superposition of odd (when describing fermions) or even (when describing bosons) products of the Clifford algebra objects. The tensor products of the ''basis vectors'' with the basis in ordinary space forming the creation operators manifest the anticommutativity (of fermions) or commutativity (of bosons) of the ''basis vectors'', explaining the second quantization postulates of both kinds of fields. Creation operators of boson fields have all the properties of the gauge fields of the corresponding fermion fields, offering a new understanding of the fermion and boson fields.

Goldstone bosons and the Englert-Brout-Higgs mechanism in non-Hermitian theories
Philp Mannheim

In recent work, Alexandre, Ellis, Millington and Seynaeve have extended the Goldstone theorem to non- Hermitian Hamiltonians that possess a discrete antilinear symmetry such as PT and possess a continuous global symmetry. They restricted their discussion to those realizations of antilinear symmetry in which all the energy eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian are real. Here, we extend the discussion to the two other realizations possible with antilinear symmetry, namely energies in complex conjugate pairs or Jordan-block Hamiltonians that are not diagonalizable at all. In particular, we show that under certain circumstances it is possible for the Goldstone boson mode itself to be one of the zero-norm states that are characteristic of Jordan-block Hamiltonians. While we discuss the same model as Alexandre, Ellis, Millington and Seynaeve, our treatment is quite different, though their main conclusion that one can have Goldstone bosons in the non-Hermitian case remains intact. We extend our analysis to a continuous local symmetry and find that the gauge boson acquires a nonzero mass by the Englert-Brout-Higgs mechanism in all realizations of the antilinear symmetry, except the one where the Goldstone boson itself has zero norm, in which case, and despite the fact that the continuous local symmetry has been spontaneously broken, the gauge boson remains massless.

Common features Of Free Particle Wave functions In Curved Spacetimes
Amnon Moalem and Alexander Gersten

We consider quantum equations for massless particles of any spin and for a massive one half spin particle in curved spacetimes. It is demonstrated that in stationary axially symmetric spacetimes the angular wave function, up to a normalization function, does not depend on the metric tensor and practically is the same as in the Minkowskian case. The radial wave functions satisfy second order nonhomogeneous differential equations with three nonhomogeneous terms which depend in a unique way on time and space curvatures. For a Dirac particle in addition to these terms the radial equations involve as expected a forth term which depends on the particle mass.

Ultra Faint Edge on Galaxies: Standard and Alternative Gravity explorations
James G. O'Brien, Thomas Chiarelli, William Kerin

Recently, Bizyaev et. al. (2021) conducted the first modeling of rotation curves for 153 ultra-faint, edge-on galaxies using the 3.5 m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. These models derived high resolution rotation curves for 20 galaxies of various sizes and spiral morhpologies, making estimates of optical scale lengths. Using the derived models, in this work we make the first fits to the rotation curves using alternative gravity, namely conformal gravity, modified newtonian dynamics and more. A robust analysis is shown including the derived rotation curve fits to the alternative gravity models, along with how the models account for empirical phenomena such as the Baryonic Tully Fisher relation and the Radial Acceleration Rule. This data is not only modern, but unique that certain galaxies are shown to be able to be fit by standard gravity alone without dark matter. Possible explanations and extensions will be discussed.

Entanglement and Microcausality
Paul O'Hara

One of the key points of Pauli’s proof of the spin-statistics theorem is the Principle of Microcausality, which essentially states "that all physical quantities at finite distance exterior to the light cone for $\vert x^\prime_0 −x^{\prime\prime}_0 \vert < \vert {\bf x}^\prime − {\bf x}^{\prime\prime}\vert $ are commutable". Indeed, Pauli was aware that if it were not valid then neither was his version of the spin-statistics theorem. In this present- tion, we explore the relationship between entanglement and microcausality and point out that in the case of spin-singlet states, microcausality does not apply. As a consequence, we revise the spin statistics theorem to incorporate entanglement and also suggest some refinements to the axiomatic structure of quantum mechanics. Ironically, singlet states are SL(2, C) invariant as is the Minkowski metric of special relativity, although the singlet state is often used to convey “spooky action at a distance” and consequently in violation of special relativity. We also pose the question whether the paradoxes associated with "entanglement" can be understood as a special case of Godel's theorem.

Mechanics of Spacetime with Surface Tension and Preferred Curvature
Howard Perko

Lorentzian geometry and continuum mechanics are very similar fields in mathematics. Both use differential geometry of manifolds to describe curved spaces with a continuous metric tensor. The mathematics of both are inherently intrinsic as neither requires a containing space. Lorentzian geometry has a pseudo-Riemannian metric and continuum mechanics has a regular (positive definite) Riemannian metric. If one makes a coordinate substitution such that time and proper time are imaginary, then it creates a complex Hilbert space where all the tools developed for continuum mechanics can be applied to evaluate spacetime geometry. In previous presentations, it was argued that because energy and matter are aligned in the thin increment of present time for any arbitrary observer, then spacetime should and must have surface tension for that observer. Since no reference frame is preferential, then what is true for any arbitrary observer must be true for all observers. In this presentation, we review how to apply 4-dimensional continuum mechanics with imaginary time coordinates to derive a mechanical model of spacetime with surface tension. We show how the model exhibits quantum fluctuations at the Plank scale and components resembling dark matter and dark energy at the cosmic scale. Then, to continue model development, we discuss the concept of preferred curvature from the physical chemistry of surfaces and attempt to apply those concepts to spacetime geometry.

The quantum charged particle self-interaction problem within the Fock multi-time and Feynman proper time paradigms
Anatolij K. Prykarpatski and Nikolai N. Bogolubov (Jr.)

In the present report we mostly concentrate on detailed quantum and classical analysis of the self-interacting shell model charged particle within the Fock multi-time approach and the Feynman proper time paradigm [3] subject to deriving the electromagnetic Maxwell equations and the related Lorentz like force expression within the vacuum field theory approach devised in works [5]. Furthermore, we explain and apply the obtained results to treating the classical H. Lorentz and M. Abraham electromagnetic mass origin problem. For the first time the proper time approach to classical electrodynamics and quantum mechanics was apparently suggested in 1937 by V. Fock [4], in which, in particular, there was constructed an alternative proper time based Lagrangian description of a point charged particle in an external electromagnetic field. A more detailed motivation for using the proper time approach was later presented by R. Feynman in his Lectures [3]. Concerning the alternative and much later investigations of the a priori given quantum electromagnetic Maxwell equations in the Fock space one can mention the Gupta-Bleiler approaches. As is well known, the first approach contradicts one of the most important field theoretical principles - the positive definiteness of the quantum event probability and is strongly based on making nonphysical use of an indefinite metric on quantum states. The second one is completely non-relativistic and based on the canonical quantization scheme in the case of the Coulomb gauge condition. Inspired by these and related classical results, we have shown that the self-interacting quantum mechanism of the charged particle with its self-generated electromagnetic field consists of two physically different phenomena, whose infiuence on the structure of the resulting Hamilton interaction operator appeared to be crucial and gave rise to a modified analysis of the related classical shell model charged particle within the Lagrangian formalism. As a result of our scrutiny of studying the classical electromagnetic mass problem there was demonstrated that it can be satisfactory solved within the classical H. Lorentz and M. Abraham arguments augmented with the additional electron stability condition, which was not taken before into account yet appeared to be very important for balancing the related electromagnetic field and mechanical electron momenta.

Does Dirac’s internal motion exist?
Mohammed Sanduk

Dirac in his explanation of the spin said: “The spin angular momentum of a particle should be pictured as due to some internal motion of the particle” (Dirac, 1958). But this idea does not match the concept of particle. Heisenberg within his philosophical point of view, he introduced the concepts of nature in itself and nature as appears. Not just that, but he proposed an idea to model the thing in itself. “The ‘thing-in-itself’ is for the atomic physicist, if he uses this concept at all, finally a mathematical structure; but this structure is – contrary to Kant – indirectly deduced from experience”( Heisenberg, 1958, P.91). Heisenberg’s ideas are adopted and developed and may be called Heisenbug’s methodology. It is based mainly on the concepts of the difference between the nature in itself and nature as appears. In considering the concepts of particle and spin as of “thing as appears”, this methodology may help to find what is beyond (internal motion) as thing in itself. This led to circles theory, that shows a good similarity with Dirac’s form (Sanduk, 2018).

Aspects of neutrino mixing and oscillations in quantum field theory
Luca Smaldone

Neutrino mixing and oscillations are nowdays well-estabilished. However, it is still matter of debate which is the correct description in a quantum field theory setting. In this talk I will present some recent developments and achievements.

Has Theory Lost Its Way?
Matthew A. Trump

In recent years it has become increasingly common for physicists to contemplate the question of whether theory has lost its way and reached a cul-de-sac, especially in regard to the Standard Model and Supersymmetry. The reasons for this are manifold, but among them one can certainly point to the rise of new forms of media that allow scientists to communicate beyond conventional means of publication. Along these lines, I intend to examine the work of Alexander Unzicker, author of Einsteins Albtraum (Einstein's Nightmare) who has become a vocal critic of the current state of theory in his print publications and on the Internet. Who is this man? Is he a crank, or does he have legitimate criticisms of the current state of theory? If so, what are these criticisms? Are they similar to the ones discussed at previous conferences of the IARD? Do they form a coherent critique of theory that points towards an alternative direction of exploration of nature and fundamental forces? At present I do not intend to give definitive answers to these questions but to inform the audience and lead a guided open discussion of them.

Tully–Fisher Relations and Retardation Theory for Galaxies
Asher Yahalom

Galaxies are huge physical systems having dimensions of many tens of thousands of light years. Thus, any change at the galactic center will be noticed at the rim only tens of thousands of years later. Those retardation effects seem to be neglected in present day galactic modeling used to calculate rotational velocities of matter in the rims of the galaxy. The significant differences between the predictions of Newtonian theory and observed velocities are usually explained by either assuming dark matter or by modifying the laws of gravity (MOND). In this presentation, we will show that taking retardation effects into account one can explain the azimuthal velocities of galactic matter and the well-known Tully–Fisher relations of galaxies.

Proper Time Oscillator
Hou Y. Yau

By restoring the symmetry between time and space in a matter field, we reconciled the properties of a zero-spin quantum field from a system that has vibrations of matter in time. This quantized real scalar field obeys the Klein-Gordon equation and Schrodinger equation. The particles observed are oscillators in proper time. In motion, the proper time oscillation translates to the oscillations of a particle in both time and space. A particle is oscillating back and forth along its trajectory. Therefore, two particles with the same initial average velocity can reach a target at different times depending on the phases of their oscillations. This leads to an uncertainty in the arrival time of a particle. In particular, we study the effects of these oscillations on the neutrinos' arrival time. The arrival time uncertainty measured can be used to estimate the mass of a neutrino. Also, by neglecting all the quantum effects and assuming the particle as a classical object that can remain stationary in space, we show that the proper time oscillator can mimic a point mass at rest in general relativity. The spacetime outside this proper time oscillator is static and satisfies the Schwarzschild solution.

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